"army;" (pl.) "followers"
12th cent. From Late Latin hostes "army," accusative plural of hostis "enemy." In Vulgar Latin meaning "enemy army."
From Proto-Italic *χosti- "foreigner," "enemy." From Proto-Indo-European *ghosti- "stranger," "guest."
Also the origin of the surname de las Huestes.
Indo-European: Germanic: Gothic gasts "guest," Old Norse gestr 'id.' Old High German gast 'id.,' Old English giest (English guest); Balto-Slavic: Old Church Slavonic gostь "guest," Russian gost' 'id.,' BCS gȏst 'id.,' Polish gość 'id.'
13th cent. From Latin ovum 'id.'
From Proto-Italic *ōwo- 'id.' From Proto-Indo-European *h2ōu̯-i̯- 'id.' An ablaut derivation from *h2eu̯-i̯- "bird" (see ave).
Romance: Western Vulgar Latin: Asturian güevu, Portuguese ovo, Galician ovo, Catalan ou, French œuf, Italian uovo; Eastern Vulgar Latin: Aromanian ou, Romanian ou; Sardinian: obu
Indo-European: Celtic: Old Welsh ui "egg," Middle Breton uy 'id.,' Old Cornish uy 'id.;' Germanic: Gothic (Crimean) ada "egg," Old Norse egg 'id.,' Old High German ei 'id.,' Old Saxon ei, Old English ǣg 'id.' (English egg); Balto-Slavic: Old Church Slavonic ajce "egg," Russian jajcó 'id.;' Albanian: ve "egg;" Hellenic: Ancient Greek ᾠόν (oión) "egg;" Armenian: jow "egg;" Indo-Iranian: Avestan aēm "egg"
12th cent. From Latin humanus 'id.,' from homo "man."
From Proto-Italic *χem-ō 'id.' From Proto-Indo-European *dhǵh(e)m-ōn "human," but literally "person from the earth." From *dheǵh-m- "earth" (see humus (1)).
Romance: Western Vulgar Latin: Portuguese humano, Catalan humà, French humain, Italian umano; Eastern Vulgar Latin: Romanian uman
Indo-European: Celtic: Old Irish duine "man," Welsh dyn 'id.,' Breton den 'id.,' Cornish den 'id.;' Germanic: Gothic guma "man," Old Norse gumi 'id.,' Old High German gomo 'id.,' Old Saxon gumo Old English guma 'id.' (English (bride) groom); Balto-Slavic: Old Prussian smunents "man," Lithuanian žmogùs 'id.'The late Proto-Indo-European word for human, *dhǵh(e)m-ōn, was isolated to the North-West branch (Italic, Celtic, Germanic, and Baltic). It was an innovation on the word for "earth" and not reflective of the oldest layer of the Proto-Indo-European language.
11th cent. From Latin fumus 'id.'
From Proto-Italic *fūmo- 'id.' From Proto-Indo-European *dhu̯h2-mó- 'id.' From a root *dhu̯eh2- "to smoke" (whence heder).
Romance: Western Vulgar Latin: Asturian fumu, Portuguese fumo, Galician fume, Catalan fum, French fumée, Italian fumo; Eastern Vulgar Latin: Aromanian fum, Romanian fum; Sardinian: fummu
Indo-European: Germanic: Old High German toum "steam" ; Balto-Slavic: Old Church Slavonic dymъ "smoke," Old Prussian dumis 'id.,' Lithuanian dū́mai 'id.;'
13th cent. Originally referring to bodily humors. Borrowed from Medieval Latin umor 'id.' and the h- added through hypercorrection. From Latin umor "liquid."
From Proto-Italic *ūmo- "wet." From Proto-Indo-European *u̯h1-mo- "wet." A putative root *u̯eh1- "to be wet" is extremely uncertain.
Italic: Latin uvidus "soaked"
Indo-European: Celtic: Middle Irish fúal "urine;" Germanic: Old Norse vǫkr "moist," Middle Dutch wac 'id.;' Hellenic: Ancient Greek ὑγρός (ygrós) "wet"
"humus" A collection of decomposing organic compounds.
Borrowed from Latin humus "earth," "soil."
From Proto-Italic *χomo- 'id.' From Proto-Indo-European *dhǵ-ōm 'id.,' with a stem *dheǵ- of uncertain meaning.
Romance: Western Vulgar Latin: French humus
Italic: Oscan húnttram "who is below" (ǵhom-tero-; the second element being the comparative suffix *-tero- added (see -tr-)), Umbrian hutra "the one underneath" (ǵhom-tero-),
Indo-European: Celtic: Old Irish dú "place" Balto-Slavic: Old Church Slavonic zemlja "earth," Russian zemljá 'id.,' Czech země 'id.,' Bulgarian zemjá, Old Prussian semmē 'id.,' Lithuanian žẽmė 'id.,' Latvian zeme 'id.;' Albanian: dhe "earth;" Hellenic: Ancient Greek χθών (khthón) "earth;" Indo-Iranian: Sanskrit kṣā́ḥ "earth," Avestan zā̊ 'id.;' Tocharian: A tkaṃ "earth," B keṃ 'id.;' Anatolian: Hittite tēkan "earth," Hieroglyphic Luwian takam 'id.'
|humus (2) m. (Noun) "hummus" Borrowed from Turkish humus 'id.,' which in turn was borrowed from Arabic ḥummuṣ "hummus," but more accurately "chickpeas," the main ingredient in hummus.|